Goa is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its western coast.
Goa is India's richest state with a GDP per capita two and a half times that of the country as a whole. It was ranked the best placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.
Panaji is the state's capital, while Vasco da Gama is the largest city. The historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa is a former Portuguese colony. The Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961.
Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. Today Goa is considered as the destination of choice for Indian and foreign tourists with limited means who wanted to party and stands 6th in the Top 10 Nightlife cities in the world.
Over 450 years of Portuguese rule and the influence of the Portuguese culture presents visitors to Goa a different environment than what is to be found elsewhere in India. The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, heritage architecture and temples. The Bom Jesus Cathedral, Fort Aguada, Mangueshi temples and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and heritage in Old Goa are other tourism destinations. It also has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, which is classified as a biodiversity hotspot.
Goa features a tropical monsoon climate being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea. The monsoon rains arrive by early June and providing lush green landscape and beautiful viewsMost of Goa's annual rainfall is received through the monsoons which last till late September.
Goa has a short winter season between mid-December and February. These months are marked by nights of around 21 °C (70 °F) and days of around 28 °C (82 °F) with moderate amounts of humidity. Further inland, due to altitudinal gradation, the nights are a few degrees cooler.